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How Does A Wastewater Treatment Plant Work?

Water. There is nothing in this life that can survive without water – and it should be clean. But when the water becomes dirty and contaminated, it is a hazard to the environment. Whether at home or industry level, there is a need for a consistent supply of fresh and clean water for various activities and tasks. Therefore, we can clean dirty water and treat it, making it safe for reuse.

This post describes the processes and stages involved in industrial water treatment. Wastewater treatment plants help in cleaning used water to make it reusable. This process can help in saving money that companies spend on water supply for their daily use. But still, wastewater must undergo treatment before releasing it to the river.

These are the processes and stages involved in treating wastewater in factories..

Bar Screening

We know that immediately after treating water, it should be ready for use in the pipes and other places. Before doing the treatment, we start by removing the large particles and pieces of waste material that could clog or damage the system pipes and equipment in the treatment plant.

Bar screening is the pre-primary level of getting the wastewater ready for purification and treatment. We can as well say that it is the staging point before the real purification process begins. A bar screen is an equipment that serves as a sieve – but it is strong to hold a lot of water and block big solid waste from passing through.

Grit Removal

Also known as screening, the process aims at removing the finer particles that pass through the first screen. The grit, if not well-addressed, can enter the pumps and purification equipment and cause them to malfunction. They could also impact the flow of water through the systems.

In the grit removal chamber, the water flows along with the organic compounds. The particles, being heavier, settle to the bottom of the chambers. Manual removal of the grit from the water allows the process to continue smoothly.

Primary Clarification

After the removal of grit, the wastewater flows into the clarifies – large tanks. Sludge – the solid organic compounds – settle at the bottom of these containers. The design of the clarification tanks allows the heavy sludge to settle down and leave the lighter liquid to continue flowing.

The rate at which the wastewater enters the clarification chambers determine the success of sludge removal. It is, therefore, necessary that the operator regulates the speed of flow for the inlet and the outlet. A slower movement ensures that most solid organic material can settle before the liquid moves to the next stage.

Separation of sludge at the clarification chamber sends it to a treatment or processing area. After water removal, the remains can dry and be used to make fertilizers.


Bacteria processes are significant in water treatment. In the aeration chamber, the liquid meets a consistent air (oxygen) supply that helps to make it a habitable zone for aerobic bacteria. These bacteria depend on oxygen to thrive and decompose matter to simpler elements or compounds.

Regulation of air supply is necessary to ensure that the compounds break down effectively, and the water retains minimal traces of chemicals. When there is an insufficient supply of oxygen supply goes down, and the bacterias die. They use the presence of ammonia to test the effectiveness of the bacteria. During the decomposition process, ammonia should break down to release nitrogen to the air.

Secondary Clarification

After breaking down organic compounds and removing waste material, you now need to filter the water again to remove the finer particles that made it through to this point. In the secondary clarifier, the daf systems at bioprocess h3O helps to get rid of the tiny particles suspended in the water along with the bacteria that come out of the aeration system.

This stage is the final filtration process, and, therefore, you would want to do it with utmost care to ensure you get rid of all impurities before releasing water to the next step. Sedimentation can also work for secondary clarification. The method allows the finer but heavier particles to settle at the bottom of the chamber as the water flows out.


After collecting the water, it is now time to disinfect it to make it safe to release to the environment. Whether it will be used for factory needs or released to the sea, you need to ensure that the water is harmless. At this stage, the water treatment plant may choose to use chlorine to kill the bacteria and harmful organisms faster.

Another choice would be the use of ozone or UV radiation in disinfection. But there are concerns that ozone is a harmful chemical. Ultraviolet treatment seems to be a safer option, and companies have settled to use it for treating wastewater at their factories. Since it does not change the chemical composition of the water at the final stages, it is the best choice for disinfecting purified wastewater.

Testing and Analysis

No. You should not be quick to release the water for use or to the river yet. The water can be harmful to the environment even after disinfection. Various laboratory tests are mandatory to ensure that there are no harmful compounds in the effluent.

Dissolved oxygen, residual chlorine, ammonia, and pH are some of the things that undergo testing to ensure that the waste meets the requirements before disposing it into the river. The tests also ensure that the treatment plant is functioning effectively.

Summing Up

Although wastewater may not be fit to serve various domestic uses, it is necessary to ensure that it is harmless before releasing it to the environment. The water treatment stages are necessary to remove most of the harmful compounds from the wastewater.

The methods or equipment may differ a little, but the process and the goals remain the same. Safety practices are mandatory to protect both man and the environment from the contamination from wastewater.

Originally posted 2020-01-23 04:15:57. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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